Only Seven Years to Develop 22 Acres with 22 Left

The New York State Supreme Court in Brooklyn on Monday March 1, 2009 rejected the final legal challenge by homeowners and businesses to the state’s use of eminent domain for the $4.9 billion, 22-acre Atlantic Yards project (see TimesTopics for more)x  The news triggered a groundbreaking for March 11, 2009.

How much ground will be broken remains unknown to all, even the developer, Bruce Ratner is reportedly unsure.x  One thing is sure, the general failure of effective criticism of the plan.x  Perhaps this was in deference to the disruption of those whose lives and businesses are forever changed.x  Perhaps not. x x Time remains to go on the record regarding the failure of “super blocks and its architecture, or to examine the distracted inability of the MTA and the DOT to address serious public safety questions given the plan as it stands.

The other 22

New York State officials will force the last 22 families and companies to move out of the Atlantic Yards project footprint if they don’t leave voluntarily by April 3, 2010.x  It began with several hundred families and businesses, but Errol Lewis summed it all up best as a reporter for the Daily News and a long time observer of New York’s uniquely imprudent politic.

“The seven-year slog leading up to today’s ribbon-cutting on the Atlantic Yards project demonstrates why New York must rethink and restructure the way it handles big land deals.

Nearly no one on either side of the debate over the planned 18,000-seat arena and 6,400 units of housing – not even the winning developer, Forest City Ratner – thinks the process was fair, balanced and rational.

There were too many lawsuits, too many unanswered questions and too many heated arguments. Worst of all, the years of bickering and delay have left behind bitterness and civic exhaustion just when we need energy, enthusiasm and public scrutiny to make Atlantic Yards a success.â€

I would have readers with an interest in the urban development process in general and in this part of Brooklyn specifically, to notice Errol’s criticism in this way. x The enormously accurate criticisms of the Atlantic Yards plan from an architectural, urban planning and design point of view are ineffective.x  Despite grievous errors of design, the less evident event is the obituary of architectural criticism.

As Lewis points out, the measure of success is tragically blurred and the lessons learned are painfully slow and easily forgotten.x  Our society has the authority to engage in the destruction of one community as a constitutionally guaranteed process for building a new one.

Lewis is right.x  We must question the current criterion that suggests we are actually making a place better or more life affirming or more environmentally sound, not just environmentally neutral.

We are currently limited to writing the postmortem. x Given the desire to correct mistakes before they are made, x what steps could be taken to give a community affected more controls over a design and development process that the law of our land as already deemed inevitable?x  How can the rules of engagement for community development practices eliminate our tragic acceptance of collateral damage?

See Source to Lewis

ADPSR + NVPress + PN + Young Network + ACD and The Center for the Living City

Toward a Just Metropolis: From Crises to Possibilities Conference Call for Proposals

Hard to believe but all the above planners, designers, activists, policymakers and citizens are seeking more of the same folkx to talk the future human settlements in San Francisco.x

The Architects/Designers/Planners for Social Responsibility (ADPSR), New Village Press, Planners Network (PN), Young Planners Network, Association for Community Design (ACD) and The Center for the Living City merges there annual conferences.

Call for Proposals – Deadline March 1, 2010
Presentations, Posters and Workshops

As cities and towns around the world grapple with the impacts of multiple and concurrent crises, progressive planners, urbanists, activists, and citizens face the challenge of transforming crises into opportunities to advance profound changes in the way we plan, build, design, live in, and govern our cities. We invite submissions addressing, but not limited to, the following questions:

  1. How are today’s crises impacting cities and transforming contemporary debates about justice?
    What possible futures emerge as cities and local communities respond to rapid economic, political, demographic, and environmental change?
  2. What is a just distribution of local, national, and global responsibilities?
  3. What possibilities and/or responsibilities will move us toward a more just metropolis?
    How do we collaborate to achieve change towards social justice, equity, better living conditions, and the right to the metropolis?
  4. What innovative ideas can crises prompt in the quest for a just and inclusive metropolis? And how do we get there?

Submission could be in the form of workshops, panel discussions, paper/project presentations, and posters. We encourage the grouping of papers in pre-organized sessions but reserve the right to realign papers once proposals have been accepted. The conference will feature a special reception for posters, during which authors will display and discuss their work one-on-one. We encourage collaboration across disciplines and communities.

AGAIN THE DEADLINE: March 1, 2010 and the following grit….

Applicants will be notified within a month of submission. Our review committee will begin work as soon as proposals are submitted, so interested participants are encouraged to submit proposals before the deadline. All participants in sessions – including local panelists – are required to register for the conference.

SESSION TYPES: We have identified four types of sessions, which are described below. If you have an idea for a different format, i.e. a film or art session, you will have the option to choose “other” on the abstract submission form. Paper/Project Presentations These sessions are designed for people to present their research, projects, ideas, accomplishments and failures. Individual presentations should be limited to 15 minutes. Qualifying presentations will be grouped together based on subject, geography or other thematic considerations. Paper/project sessions will be between 1 and 1.5 hours, and all authors should be present for the full duration of their session, to allow for audience Q&A. Panels Panels may be a collection of individual papers and projects or a panel facilitated by a moderator. Priority will be given to panels that reflect diversity of opinions, backgrounds and geography. Panels must have a minimum of three and a maximum of five panelists. The panel organizer must submit ONE abstract on behalf of the entire panel. The abstract should include the title, purpose, and the names of the panelists and the moderator. Qualifying panel discussions will be between 1 and 1.5 hours and should leave room for Q&A.

If you would like us to help identify an outside moderator/discussant, please indicate so in your submission. Participatory Workshops The goal of a participatory workshop is the involvement of ALL workshop participants in a discussion or other exercise designed to learn, communicate, debate, etc.

Workshops can be led by a single person, although workshops led by a diverse range of people will receive priority. “Presenting†by the workshop leader/s should be limited. Workshop proposals should include the title and purpose of the workshop, the names of all presenters/leaders, and should indicate how leaders intend to involve others in the workshop.

Workshops will be between 1 and 1.5 hours and will take place in classroom-sized rooms, unless special arrangements are made. Please indicate if the workshop will require any special arrangements for space, scheduling, etc.

Posters – Posters emphasize the visual communication of ideas and are an excellent way to present one’s research, designs or project outside of a formal session. The conference will feature a special reception for posters, during which authors will present and discuss their work one-on-one, and the posters will be on display in the main conference site during the classroom sessions on Friday June 18th and Saturday June 19th.

Poster abstracts should include the title, purpose, names of all authors/presenters and preliminary description or design of the poster. Other We enthusiastically invite the submission of proposals for other presentation formats, such as film, installations, project exhibitions, student work, etc. Abstracts in this category must include the title, purpose, names of presenters/authors, description of the work to be presented, and any required special arrangements (space, scheduling, etc.).

SUBMISSION OF PROPOSALS

Presenters/authors must first submit an abstract-length proposal of approximately 250-400 words. Proposals must also include: Title Purpose Key words (minimum of 1, maximum of 5) Abstract (250-400 words) Name(s) of all authors, presenters, panelists, workshop leaders, etc. Name(s) of suggested discussant(s), for pre-organized sessions and panels only Special arrangements (space requirements, scheduling, etc.) To submit an abstract, clink on the link below, which will take you to an offsite abstract submission system which we are using to manage submissions. Abstract Submission Page Please direct any questions about proposal submissions to Kate Ervin (HunterMUP at gmail.com).

Form-Base Miami

newmiami21

Density is a central factor in creating the experience of urban intensity, but it is not the element that makes it pleasurable.x  x Density offers access but “ease†makes it enjoyable.x  Numeric measures can point to a place of interest but they are without the elements needed to describe or judge it.

Jobs and population per acre are common measures of density, while design components such as the ratio of building mass to open space frames the quality of the experience.x  Places from low- to high-density are tired to individual place finding or marking abilities that provide for a sense of position that reflects personal value within a community.

The images in “patchwork nation†illustrate the U.S. in 12 “community types†by using demographic, political and socioeconomic data.x  What is not shown is how a census block groups of any major urban center will easily replicate the image of the nation by county.x  That the nation has these social “densities†as similarly as a city is encouraging.

Density and community land use formulas tend to see a house always being “a house†or an office complex limited to business, but in an intensely used urban environment, these initial functions yield many new, often unexpected uses.x x  Density provides the opportunity for a critical mass of interaction, but it works best when combined with an open-ended set of form elements produces to produce the desire for “development intensity†that leads to a sense of confidence about dynamically changing sets of land uses.

A region with 100 jobs and 200 residents per acre may identify a comparatively dense area in the region and signify a transit-oriented mixed-use center. x Using this measure, the development intensity tier includes the number of time intervals that link to other transit-oriented centers. These areas might have lower residential/job densities jobs per acre or higher.x  Each signifies an edge where the “intensity†accelerates or declines.x  The density itself only remains significant as an intensifying agent within a traditional street grid, height and scale ratios. x x Areas operating without this constraint tend to yield grey zones, lost landscapes and forgotten trends.x  x Growth without constraint is what kills them.x  The death is rapid and it shames the residential community into which it was injected.

Form-Based Growth

Before heading off to University of Utah, x Arthur “Chris” Nelson, was in the Urban Affairs and Planning program at Virginia Tech’s Washington-Alexandria Center.x  His research indicated a doubling of the entire built environment in the Greater Washington, D.C. region could occur by 2030.x  The concept of exponential growth is intoxicating in mega regions such as the northeast, but the rate of Greenfield development is by all accounts unsustainable, and that policy measures to focus (if not force) this energy into the existing built environment requires implementation.x  Without new restraints, the a majority of the job growth will occur outside of the urban core areas, resulting in nothing more than a vast enlargement of the current “inner city†design process over much larger section of the metropolitan region.x  Conclusions from this analysis demand a new regime of land use and building controls authored on a regional basis and of necessity across state lines. x One megaregion is contained with the Florida whose development concerns turned to a form basis.

The purpose of a “form-based code” is to yield to human creative purposes with a greater trust in performance measures and regulations affecting access to natural light, clean air, lack of noise, and other events or qualities that affect the quality of life.x  When x Miami 21 was passed in October 2009, the introduction of the “transect” idea may change everything in land use management.x  It is a boundary line around a land area for ecological measurements.x  Injecting this idea in to land use and development decisions is not only protective of life, it contributes to the development contextual development events and conversion.x  Although the “code†was involved the transition of the West Side Highway in Manhattan into a street near waterfront parkland speaks to this purpose.x x  Today it is not exactly the Camps-Elysee, but there are aspirations and this potential is now far greater than that offered by former existence as a limited access, elevated super-highway.

The principles of form-based code limit building heights based on the street grids.x  Yet as a constraint it recognizes and support traditional neighborhood resilience.x  These communities offer a vibrant series of mixed-use centers that accommodate growth and increased urban intensity.x x  With multiple forms of public mass transit this intensity also contributes to the growth of other mixed-use urban centers or edge cities and employment centers throughout the region

Interested in comments from Raleigh, Cabarrus County, Charlotte and Denver

Debunk

The online project to demystify planning/urban design jargon

We seek irreverent definitions of planning/urban design jargon. x  The kind that gets at the truth that hurts so much it makes you laugh.x Limit is 60 words. x  Choose from a working list see:x Glossary

Suggested Entry

Stakeholders (n), 1. label, defines persons who are affected materially by a physical change but also most likely to be without the equity sufficient to alter or manage the process affecting them. x See: Loosers

Suggested blog tags and categories: participation, community benefit agreements, have nots,x 

Case/Example for discussion: Google: Willets Point, New York City, Urban Development

Earthday_09

Metro = megacity/megacorp + OBDC
Earthday, urban land use and management

Image: 1963
Image: 1963

Without a national land use policy, America’s formationx of megacities in just over fifty years logically requires some kind of metro-managementx — a metro-megacity-corp.x x Planners have been criticizing our “land-of-a-thousand micro-governments” x for decades, but something has changed that may add traction to solving the problems this presents to regional urban design.x x x The fear was that ifx such a thing did exist itx wouldx function with the samex level of oversight offeredx to outfits likex Enron, AIG or Citicorp.x x  The political will is to keep them at arm’s length, but preferablyx the short kind that hang from the sidesx of lobbyists.x 

Then comes this change.x x x It isx the widening availability of veryx largex data-sets thatx can be used tox define the nation’sx 300+ mega-cities.x  The nation’s 50 state image is just that – an image.x x x Turning the states into regional managementx corporations is becoming politically palatable because that is what is happening anyway. x  The governors have a whole basketful of PBCs that bridge state lines — seems only thing missing is a little federal oversight — in the national interest.x  It was the National Defense Highway act that put the nation on the mega-city path.x  In the words ofx a well lovedx Yankee ball player Yogi Berra,x  “You have to be careful if you don’t know where your going because you might not get there.”x 

The states would not be in financial collapse and budgeting would be balanced to a regional interest if the principles of Smart Growth laid out nearly a decade ago by Anthony Downs (April 2001, Planning)x had traction (to see click here).x x Back then, too few knew that thex use of mega-corporate level datax was somethingx the states already control,x but didx not share regionally across their boarders.x  The framework existed but itx did notx hold a soupcon of policy clout.x  Perhaps onex of the reasons there are so many registered and unregistered lobbyists is to keep this a secret.x  The idea that the micro-marketing wars are only launched by business every ten years is a similar misunderstanding of the changing role of data systems.

Businesses large and smallx are too busy protecting their interests to worry about regional planning or urban design, but they do file their tax returns.x  Sharing rapidly developing megacity data is not crazy at all.x x  After all, the small businessx and thex mega-corporate entity is driven on the basis of a daily consumer voting process. x The information on consumption is vastx and until recently largely unused by states for regional planning.x  Once consumption is linked up to the vital statistics and social characteristics ofx  “a region”x  the sheer power of it all belongsx without doubt in a public realm.x 

Get a Handle

To get a handle on this see: x Good Guidex , and look up ideas like “industrial ecology” for access to data streams that get beyond the “green branding” phenomena to the cold, hard facts that define who you are and where you are going by what you buy every day, not who you vote for every few years.x  Wake up smell the coffee.x  Then check the brand for its “earth” friendliness and act accordingly.x  The idea is simple — these tools allow the consumerx to shorten the caveat emptor cycle.

Resources such as these are described with terms such as “open data base connectivity”.x x It is the jargon ofx data systemsx that offer things like highly detailed product ratings that align consumption choices with values (even an iPhone app). x Individual consumption data tools that account for environmental impact comparisons among consumption choices puts into action the ecology of commerce that Paul Hawkens talked about in 1993.x  The cycles are getting shorter.x  Something is working.

To put this consumptionx handle in its x “class”x  I recommend seeing thex review of two books on data crunching inx thex x CD blog.x  And, for more on the “mega-city” reference seex video: herex in post : “Go to Chicago”.x x x x  See for RPD on NYC see: Climate Design. x Also see, thex Three Promisesx of progressive plannners that still need to be pursuedx with some urgency.

Go to Chicago

Be in Chicago on Monday, April 27 beginning at 8:30 a.m. on the UIC campus 725 W. Roosevelt Rd. It is open to the public for $25 with tickets via the Forum’s website: www.RJDUrbanForum.uic.edu. Two ways to look at it — cities are crucial to “recovery†from crisis or urbanism itself is a discursive human event that begs the question. x Needed improvements to recovery systems challenge the very foundations of American governance. On this point three useful forums in this year’s Richard J. Daley Urban Forum (UIC) will be enriched by the attention of the Vice-President Joe Biden, but hopefully the Vice President’s attention will be given to Brookings’, Bruce Katz “We are a Metro Nation and it is time to start acting like oneâ€. (See below)

Two of the panels are expected, however, the surprise may be embedded in the deal making third panel.

  1. Economic Recovery and Urban Reinvestment, addressing the impact of national stimulus plans and regional and local initiatives on urban areas as well as key obstacles to these recovery efforts;
  2. Economic Revitalization: Education and Healthcare, exploring how citiesas the center of innovation, creativity and entrepreneurshipcan take the imaginative steps needed to climb out of today’s world recession in a way that reaches far beyond urban areas; and
  3. Global Town Meeting, where mayors from more than 30 cities will describe their programs in response to the global economic crisis.

How crucial to recovery is regionalx urban governance? x  The Urban Forum, holds the UIC Forum atx 725 W. Roosevelt Road.x  It is open to the public.x  Tickets can be purchased for $25 through the Forum Web sitex (above).x  x If you want to talk to someone give Ellie Abrams a call 312/573-5516 or write: ellie_abrams@jtpr.com. You can also get in touch with Bill Burton, UIC 312/996-2269 burton@uic.edu

The big picture was outlined in November 2007 by Bruce Katz in just 32 minutes.
The code does not hold for some reason

For the video presentation click herex  or here

More:x 

Bruce Katzx x is Vice President and Director, Metropolitan Policy Program
See Brookings:x  Presentationx and more x Recent Blueprint Articles

POP

Ecology Technology (ecotech?)

A long time ago Sim Van der Ryn and Stuart Cowan defined sustainability both technologically and ecologically.x  They pointed to the hubris embedded in the technological approachx to the goal of sustainability.x  Technology has proven to be deadly unless it is fully tetheredx in the way David W. Orr recommended in demandingx careful human attention to the absolutx priority of ecological principles.

  • First, people are finite and fallible. The human ability to comprehend and manage scale and complexity has limits. Thinking too big can make our human limitations a liability rather than an asset.
  • Second, a sustainable world can be redesigned and rebuilt only from the bottom up. Locally self-reliant and self-organized communities are the building blocks for change.
  • Third, traditional knowledge that coevolves out of culture and place is a critical asset. It needs to be preserved, restored, and used.
  • Fourth, the true harvest of evolution is encoded in nature’s design. Nature is more than a bank of resources to draw on: it is the best model we have for all the design problems we face.

Technology is zero-sum when placed in a priority higher than these four principles of real change.x  The Urban Design committee is looking for a readings and critiques of Sustainablex America by John Dernbachx (et. al) and theirx position: Sustainable development willx  make the US livable, healthy, secure, and prosperous.

The book runs through 28 areas of human behavior that need to change using 100 actions taken within five to ten years and thematically summarizedx in 10 points as follows:

1.x x  Ecological footprint system integration
2.x x  Greenhouse gas reduction programs
3.x x  Stimulate employment for unskilled persons in environmental protection and restoration
4.x x  Stimulate NGOs to play a major role
5.x x  Organize government initiatives using sustainability principles to prioritize
6.x x  Expand options for sustainable living choices to consumers
7.x x  Advance general public and formal education
8.x x  Strengthen environmental and natural resources law
9.x x  Lead international efforts on behalf of sustainable development
10. Systematically improve access to data for decision making

x It was released January 12, 2009. One can order from Island Press here or Amazon herex  For more information, See the books website site Sustainable Americax  or Dernbach’s website: x x Also see Dernbach’s 2002 book: Stumbling Towards Sustainability.

INWOOD: Just another zoning change…or is it?

The Re-Zoning Sherman Creek and Inwood

The rezoning of the Sherman Creek waterfront and the core area of Inwood began at the behest of the Economic Development Corporation in 2001. Details are found on the EDC website here and on the DCP website here. The reasons for this particular initiative may be generalized to three political influences.

First, New York City’s bid for the 2012 Olympic games and beyond stimulated a massive search for “sites”. Failing this, (even though it was a valiant effort) the work retained its second value as a strategy within an overall plan to fuflill the Bloomberg administration’s interest in the production of affordable housing, largely thorugh tax expenditure investments and zoning changes.

Changing the zoning and adding in some bonus floor area minimizes the use of the city’s expense and capital budget to the greatest degree possible. The Japanese call this “minkatsu” to “stimulate the private sector” as a partner.

Third and ultimately, a local interest in wealth creation is satisfied. It is a small but influential group of investors with substantial land holdings in this area that need the boost in land value.

This entire effort will begin to play out in the Fall of 2007 and its effects might begin to show almost immediately, by the time it gets to the City Council 120 ULURP days later.

The area is predominately composed of immigrants of the Dominican Republic who are steeped in family but stilledgy poor.x  The area is also dominated by a high grade stock of art deco architecture perched for the most part on a hill with a median household income that dwarfs that of the residents just below.

This community of the hill and the valley of Inwood is just north and east of the Inwood Hill “wilderness” the last of the original growth of Manhattan and only known home of the Golden Eagle in New York City.

This for example, is just the begininning:

Highbridge Park Trails Grand Opening Festival May 19, 2007 mountainbikes, mountain, bikers, trails Mountain Bikes … years of lobbying and meetings, and a year and a half of actual trail design and … Urban Trailblazers. The New York City Mountain Bikers Meetup Group

First Meeting: Sat, May 19 at 10:00am EDT New York, NY

Columbia’s Manhattanville

Regulatory Taking andx Columbia University
Background

In June 2005 the U.S. Supreme Court in a 5-4 vote upheld the use of eminent domain by the city of New London, CT. (Kelo vs. City of New London) by saying economic development was a public purpose thereby giving government the authority to acquire property, affirming decades of previous litigation on this issue. By the end of 2006 thirty-five states enacted eminent domain restrictions and related reform of “regulatory takingsâ€.x  In that year, three of the four takings measures on state ballots were rejected. Most notable was the way Oregon voters repealed a takings initiative, Measure 37.x  The defeat of California’s Prop 98 in 2007 signaled another setback for advocates of regulatory takings.x x x Often dubbed Kelo-plus and Kelo 3rd Round most of the initiatives seek compensation for lost value due to land-use regulation. To date only one effort in Arizona stimulated by Howard Rich, a New York real estate investor and “libertarian crusader†has succeeded.x x But the bottom line is basic.x  In most cases regulationx can be proven to increase value.x x In February 2008 the New York State Bar Association’sx task force completed its recommendations on thex use of eminent domain.x 

Community organizations throughout the country are raising money and filing proposed ballot initiatives with their state attorney general that prohibit use of eminent domain for transferring property from one private entity to another without added protections. The eminent domain debate in New York should examine its long history of condemnations for economic development.x  In this light and from a strictly legal point of view there are three areas rich with potential litigation including the use of referendum.x  These are the historical uses of eminent domain, the fairness of direct and indirect compensation, and targeting of low-income and minority populations.x  Unlike other states, the one most likely to succeed in New York will involve added protections to residential and business tenants in reassessing just compensation issues.

Would pursuing the “tenant†protection component yield valuable community economic development objectives?x  Hard to say, but both sides might be more recognizablex to the average research effort byx viewing: www.law.georgetown.edu/gelpi.x  This site helps to define hairline legal differences between “regulatory taking” and “eminent domain†in the proposed reforms of Oregon’s Measure 37.x  In this particular case, government becomes liable for attorney fees if court award is greater than initial government offer.x 

Headline: “Citizens call for reform of the reform.” Timothy Sandefur, Author of “Cornerstone of Liberty: Property Rights in 21st Century America†www.instituteforjustice.orgx x …

This site has links to www.cato.org, Howard Rich is a board member (Cato).x  He likes how the term “property rights” strikes a cord among voters.x  They also have a hot selling t-shirt that reads, “blight meâ€. It all seems exquisitely hypocritical, but why?

Given the historically poor performance of government in protecting individuals in the short term for vague long term benefits, the public’s opinion can easily be brought to define Kelo as a decision that betrays them –x the small businessperson and working class residents, as well as, weakenx legitimate efforts to erase racially imposed economic disparities.x x  But, the dissent of Justice Sandra Day O’Connor is probably best overall.

“Under the banner of economic development, all private property is now vulnerable to being taken and transferred to another private owner. . . . Nothing is to prevent the State from replacing any Motel 6 with a Ritz-Carlton, any home with a shopping mall, or any farm with a factory. . . . The Founders cannot have intended this perverse result.”

How Does this “big picture” Policy Fit Manhattanville?
What does it do to the design of a place?

How about seeing INTERNATIONAL HOUSE as an example (as outside chance)? Located at 500 Riverside Drive, 122nd Street) New York, NY 10027 www.ihouse-nyc.org x This is a stretch,x but Columbia offers a very nice “extra-large” apartment with private bathroom at $12,090/month and other less luxurious accommodations to full-time graduate students.x  They arex available only during thex academic year; undergraduates are welcome in the summer.x  Applications are requiredx if stays of 30 days or more are intended. x 

Columbia isx extending housingx privledges in orderx to acquire social capital within a tuition business.x  So, here is the thing, Barbara and Howard Rich are among many large real estate holders who are supporters of university sponsored Fulbright Scholarships and the programmed-education with housing market in New York City. Almost every university in New York City is a sponsor of this program as it brings in paying clients (students of all ages) to the fold. Via: www.metrointl.org .x  Suprise!x  This is a max hit zone is for housing such as the above. For Players see:www.metrointl.org/support/documents/2006FulbrightAwardsDinnerSupporters.pdf

Is there anyother way to look at the this? There must be a way…

APA Metro Prepares Testimony on Manhattanville zoningx 
or go straight to the CPC DEISx for some real fun reading…

Seex “group discussion” linkx under FirmsBack to: Community Designx  or Urban Design